Just about time for the closing ceremony, so time for one last chart - a simple dot plot that tries to capture the effect of distance/hurdles on the average speed of the winners of the Men's Track & Field event finals. Was kind of surprised to see how fast those distance walkers go!
* Fun w/ODS Graphics: Dot Plot of Men's Track & Field event winners' avg speeds; data results; infile cards dlm="," firstobs=2 truncover dsd; input DISTANCE EVENT : $30. WINNER : $30. COUNTRY : $30. TIME time12.; MPH=DISTANCE/TIME/1000*60*60*0.621371; * Convert to miles-per-hour for us metric-challenged; * Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athletics_at_the_2016_Summer_Olympics; cards; DISTANCE,EVENT,WINNER,COUNTRY,TIME 100, 100m,Usain Bolt, Jamaica,0:00:09.81 200, 200m,Usain Bolt, Jamaica,0:00:19.78 400, 400m,Wayde van Niekerk, South Africa,0:00:43.03 800, 800m,David Rudisha, Kenya,0:01:42.15 1500, 1500m,Matthew Centrowitz Jr., United States,0:03:50.00 5000, 5000m,Mo Farah, Great Britain,0:13:03.30 10000, 10000m,Mo Farah, Great Britain,0:27:05.17 110, 110m hurdles,Omar McLeod, Jamaica,0:00:13.05 400, 400m hurdles,Kerron Clement, United States,0:00:47.73 3000, 3000m steeplechase,Conseslus Kipruto, Kenya,0:08:03.28 400, 4×100m relay, Jamaica,,0:00:37.27 1600, 4×400m relay, United States,,0:02:57.30 42195, Marathon,Eliud Kipchoge,Kenya,2:08:44.00 20000, 20km walk,Wang Zhen, China,1:19:14.00 50000, 50km walk,Matej Tóth, Slovakia,3:40:58.00 ; ods listing image_dpi=300 gpath='/folders/myfolders'; ods graphics on / reset antialias width=7in height=5in imagename="FastFasterFastest"; proc sgplot data=results; title "Who's the Fastest of Them All? Winners of Men's Track & Field Event Finals"; dot event / response=MPH categoryorder=respdesc; yaxis display=(nolabel) valueattrs=(size=7pt); xaxis label="Average Speed(Mph)" grid labelattrs=(size=7pt) valueattrs=(size=7pt); yaxistable mph / title="Mph" position=right nolabel titleattrs=(size=7pt); yaxistable distance / title="Meters" position=right nolabel titleattrs=(size=7pt); yaxistable winner / title="Winner" position=right nolabel titleattrs=(size=7pt); yaxistable country / title="Country" position=right nolabel titleattrs=(size=7pt); yaxistable time / title="Time" position=right nolabel titleattrs=(size=7pt); format mph 5.2 time tod11.2 distance comma7.; run;
Interesting that the 4x100 is faster average speed than the 100m, but the 4x400 is a little slower than the 400.
At first I was confused that the average speed of 4x100 could be so much faster than the Usain Bolt's average speed in the 100m. But I suppose perhaps it is because in the 4x100, three of the four runners get a "running start" instead of starting from the blocks.
And, to add to @Quentin, there is only reaction time included once at the start. The 3 subsequent runners get to see the oncoming team member and start moving as desired. Cutting out 3 reactions to start could well be nearly .6 seconds overall.
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