Here's how the pieces interact.
The NOBS= option on the SET statement creates a temporary variable, holding the number of observations in the data set.
Normally, the SET statement starts at the beginning of the data set and reads the next observation every time. The POINT= option changes that, reading the observation designated by the POINT= variable.
The OUTPUT statement outputs the current observation, without waiting for later DATA step processing to occur.
The STOP statement halts the DATA step, to prevent looping that would read the same observatiosn over and over again.
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Learn the difference between classical and Bayesian statistical approaches and see a few PROC examples to perform Bayesian analysis in this video.
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