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I need to calculate Average as shown in below table,
by zone and time.

Average should be of previous and the next number
for ex: for zone A for time 00:30 it is average of demand of time 00:15 and 00:45.

Time Zone demand Average
0:15 A 10 10
0:30 A 20 20
0:45 A 30 17.5
0:15 B 15 15
0:30 B 18 17.5
0:45 B 20 17.5
0:15 C 17 17
0:30 C 19 19
0:45 C 21 11
0:15 D 3 3
0:30 D 8 11
0:45 D 19 8

please help regarding the code.
Lapis Lazuli | Level 10 sbb
Lapis Lazuli | Level 10
Explore using the LAG function - the SAS DOC section below demonstrates a DATA step approach to obtaining a "Leading Series" calculation.

Scott Barry
SBBWorks, Inc.

Suggested Google advanced search argument, this topic / post:

lag function

next observation value calculation

lead function
Opal | Level 21
While I don't understand your example, the code offered by Howard Schrier at:
will definitely give you a way to average the previous and next values.

Rhodochrosite | Level 12
You can also find DATA step examples at:

PROC EXPAND can also be used to calculate moving averages, see:
Calcite | Level 5
It really helped. Thank you!
SAS Employee

You can use the cmovave transformation operation in PROC EXPAND:


proc expand data=have out=want;
    by zone;
    id time;
    convert demand = avg / transform=(cmovave 3);

If you want a pure DATA step approach, you can calculate a lag and lead, then divide. Attached is a program that will let you calculate leads efficiently.


%lead(data=have, out=have_lead, var=demand, by=zone);

data want;
    set have_lead;
    by zone time;

    lag1_demand = lag(demand);

    /* Calculate the denominator and do not set lags for the first value of zone */
    if( then do;
        n = 1; 
        lag1_demand = .;
        else n = 3 - nmiss(lag1_demand, lead1_demand);

    avg = sum(demand, lag1_demand, lead1_demand)/n;

    drop lag1_demand lead1_demand n;




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