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I am attempting to estimate a binary probit model using proc qlim in SAS OnDemand (v 9.4). As far as I was aware and after looking at the SAS User Guide my coefficient estimates should have values between -1 and 1. When I run the code below (modeled after the User Guide) some of the estimates I get are outside of the -1 to 1 range. The model includes continuous variables: pi and lv, and binary variables: denied, race, ccs, pbcr, uria, se, multi, iraj, and male. 


proc qlim;
model denied = pi race ccs pbcr uria se lv multi gift iraj male /discrete;
title 'PROBIT estimation';


I also noticed that when added to the end of the model statement  </discrete>  did not change colors like is typical for other </options> statements. I'm not quite sure if I made a mistake or had some incorrect assumptions but any advice or thoughts would be great. 





SAS Employee

Hi there,


I hope I understood your question correctly.


As far as the PROBIT regression coeffieints go, there is no obvious restriction  (-1,1).

To verify and convince you of that, I modified the code available here:


The modified code addressing the PROBIT case is below.


It is important to notice that the original coefficients  are:

beta = {2, -4, 1};

Indeed, after increasing the sample size to 10000, you will see that the estimates are close:

beta = {2.049585, -4.099663, 1.023898};


*--------------------- PROBIT CODE --------------------------------------;

/* Example from _Simulating Data with SAS_, p. 226--229 */
%let N = 10000; /* N = sample size */
proc iml;
call randseed(1);
X = j(&N, 3, 1); /* X[,1] is intercept */
/* 1. Read design matrix for X or assign X randomly.
For this example, x1 ~ U(0,1) and x2 ~ N(0,2) */
X[,2] = randfun(&N, "Uniform");
X[,3] = randfun(&N, "Normal", 0, 2);

/* Logistic model with parameters {2, -4, 1} */
beta = {2, -4, 1};
eta = X*beta; /* 2. linear model */
mu = probnorm(eta); /* 3. transform by inverse  */

/* 4. Simulate binary response. Notice that the
"probability of success" is a vector (SAS/IML 12.1) */
y = j(&N,1); /* allocate response vector */
call randgen(y, "Bernoulli", mu); /* simulate binary response */

/* 5. Write y and x1-x2 to data set*/
varNames = "y" || ("x1":"x2");
Out = X; Out[,1] = y; /* simulated response in 1st column */
create LogisticData from Out[c=varNames]; /* no data is written yet */
append from Out; /* output this sample */
close LogisticData;


proc qlim data=LogisticData plots=none;
model y = x1 x2 / discrete(distribution=probit);



SAS Employee



Please check out the link below to obtain the details about the binary probit model that QLIM estimates.


As you see there, the probit model has an underlying latent model


y* = x’beta + epsilon


where y* cannot be observed but we can observe y and the relationship between y and y* is based on


y = 1 if y* >0

y = 0 otherwise


When you say “the PROBIT regression coefficients” I understand that you are referring to beta in this model. There are no particular restrictions on beta as they are the regression coefficients from an unobserved linear model.


When it comes to the second part of your question, it is true that the keywords like the model options change into the blue color to indicate that they are keywords but if this does not work do not worry. As long as you are not getting an error in the log window, you are not making a mistake for that option.     


I hope this helps,



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