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Accessing SAS Viya, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Kubernetes

Started ‎09-27-2022 by
Modified ‎10-06-2022 by
Views 2,849

In essence, Kubernetes is the sum of all the bash scripts and best practices
that most system administrators would cobble together over time, presented as a
single system behind a declarative set of APIs.

   — Kelsey Hightower


Kubernetes is the leading container orchestration platform, an open-source solution started at Google and now developed under the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. SAS Viya is deployed in Kubernetes, taking advantage of the benefits that such an option provides in terms of software development, security, cloud strategy, resiliency and flexibility - but with this complete embrace of cloud-native technologies, it can sometimes be difficult to understand how previously straightforward things like network communication flows work.


In this article we will peel off each layer of the SAS Viya on Kubernetes network onion with two different target audiences in mind:


  • Those familiar with SAS (9, Viya) who are interested in learning more about how communication works when SAS Viya is deployed in Kubernetes.
  • Those who want to have a step-by-step introduction to Kubernetes networking, since the use of SAS Studio can be generalized to any other microservice.


The official SAS Viya documentation does a great job of going through the SAS-specific aspects but assumes that the Kubernetes concepts are already known and understood. The official Kubernetes documentation goes through all the components but is not obvious how they fit and work together to someone new. This article bridges both worlds.


Consider this diagram as both the starting point and the final destination: 


1 - Intro.png


If it's obvious to you, then you may still find some value in skimming the article for some nuggets of information. If, however, it's far from obvious, or there are at least some parts that are hard to follow, then this article was written with you in mind. We will advance through a series of sections with enough detail to make it clear why each layer exists and what it does; gradually making this diagram easier to read:


  1. Introduce some core concepts around Kubernetes and Azure Kubernetes Service
  2. Explore how SAS Studio - an application within SAS Viya - is exposed to the user:
    1. Pods and their ephemeral nature
    2. Services and exposing applications internally
    3. Ingress rules and Layer 7 routing
    4. The NGINX Ingress controller and exposing to the outside world
    5. Load Balancers and the Cloud
  3. Review the communication flow, now starting from the outside world and ending in SAS Studio


We didn't shy away from introducing detail: in fact, we will make liberal use of the Kubernetes command line interface, kubectl, to show how we obtain the necessary information. That said, there is no expectation of deep Kubernetes knowledge, and the terminal output is there as a complement and not as the sole source of truth: a reader that is not excessively concerned with understanding the shell snippets will still, hopefully, reach the end of the article with a sound understanding of how things work, and why they work as they do.


Note: We will be using the kubectl command for interacting with the Kubernetes cluster. To reduce the amount of typing we will use a much shorter alias in the examples, a single letter k.This can be achieved by using the alias command
$ alias k=kubectl
and validated by checking with type:
$ type k
k is aliased to `kubectl'

Throughout the article the citation above will become clearer: as we explore each layer we will find ourselves facing familiar concepts like servers, load balancers and HTTP proxies, but within a Kubernetes cluster of consistent semantics and API.


SAS Viya and Kubernetes


SAS Viya has adopted Kubernetes as the underlying container orchestration platform, opening up immense possibilities for all that wish to combine the industry-leading abilities of SAS in analytics, data science and AI, with a cloud-native deployment approach that aligns with current strategic roadmaps, not the least because of the potential benefits it brings to the table: integration with CI/CD for deployment and code, enabling hybrid cloud scenarios by supporting both on-premises and cloud deployments, multi-cloud support by default, and perhaps more importantly, a product development process that is more agile, with more releases, and with faster incorporation of new features.


Evolution of deployment strategies (from of deployment strategies (from


If the move towards Kubernetes seems obvious today (especially considering how Kubernetes has become the industry standard in container orchestration and is the underlying platform upon which a lot of other extremely popular technologies are built), someone coming from a SAS 9 background can find the target architecture somewhat hermetic: instead of a number of servers with a specific set of well-known components, SAS Viya depends on nodes, deployments, services, ingresses, and pods, plus many other concepts that can seem complex - and especially so in terms of the network aspects.


SAS Studio interface on SAS Viya.SAS Studio interface on SAS Viya.


When using SAS Studio in SAS Viya, how do our requests get there? This is precisely the aspect we will address in this article: how do network requests work in a Kubernetes context, starting from a single pod and working our way out of the Kubernetes onion, peeling off the apparent complexity layer by layer - and once we are comfortably on the outside, trace our way back, now with a clearer understanding of how SAS Viya and Kubernetes work.


An overview of the Kubernetes networking model


There is a lot of good information about Kubernetes networking, starting from the official documentation. In more than one way, the Kubernetes network model is a set of principles whose implementation is done by specific components (namely, Container Network Plugins, CNI).


It is not our intention to go into the details of all the options and the possibilities of using different approaches. Our environment will be based on:


  • A Kubernetes 1.23 cluster on Microsoft Azure (Azure Kubernetes Service).
  • SAS Viya 2022.1.3, deployed in a sas-viya namespace (configured to be the active Kubernetes context)
  • Use of the AKS default kubenet CNI.
  • Use of the NGINX Ingress controller


Kubenet networking in AKS (source: networking in AKS (source:


Given that we are describing standard Kubernetes concepts, the vast majority of this article will apply to all Kubernetes and SAS Viya versions. We will be using Azure Kubernetes Service for this article, so some details will be Azure-specific (but the concepts are easily transposed to other Kubernetes platforms). Specifically, AKS uses kubenet as the default networking option for Kubernetes clusters, and that has the following implications:


  1. Nodes receive an IP address from the Azure virtual network subnet.
  2. Pods receive an IP address from a logically different address space than the nodes' Azure virtual network subnet.
  3. Network address translation (NAT) is then configured so that the pods can reach resources on the Azure virtual network.
  4. The source IP address of the traffic is translated to the node's primary IP address.


For now, we will refrain from explaining some of the implications of these points. As we go along our step-by-step exploration of how a typical HTTP(S) request, they will become more obvious and we will refer back to them.


Overview of SAS Viya on AKS.Overview of SAS Viya on AKS.


This diagram is a good starting point for the concepts we will explore:


  • SAS Viya, as a solution, is composed of Pods, Services and Ingresses, just a few of the many other types of components (including Deployments, container images, Secrets, etc.). These were chosen given the very direct role they play when describing the network flows.
  • The NGINX Ingress controller is a Layer 7 proxy and HTTP server, a requirement for SAS Viya due to the way it allows URL-based routing, among other features.
  • The entire solution is deployed in Microsoft Azure, namely the Azure Kubernetes Service and the Azure Load Balancer.

The following image shows the network configuration of the cluster; there's no need to fully understand what this means right now, but we will be referring back to this information as we go along.

AKS network detailsAKS network details


We should note that the details above match our earlier description of the kubenet CNI, and in simple terms determines which address space is reserved for specific uses in the cluster. With that out of the way, let's start!


From the inside out: how SAS Studio receives requests


For our journey, we will use SAS Studio as our starting point: while other components in SAS Viya will have different configurations, SAS Studio is a good example of how most microservices in SAS Viya work and, more than that, how a microservice that exposes an HTTP port works.


Microservices: the Pod





The actual application that will interact with our requests - the closest equivalent to what would be the application program in a "traditional" server installation - is running inside a pod, the smallest deployable units of computing deployed in Kubernetes, a group of one or more containers that share storage and network resources, and that are always co-scheduled.


SAS Viya is composed of many pods, and we can easily get the one that has the SAS Studio application running:


$ k get pod|grep sas-studio-app
sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z 1/1 Running 0 37m

Looking into this pod, we can see that it's running very few processes, all of which are directly related to the application. Unlike a typical Linux server, there aren't lots of background processes and other applications running. This is one of the advantages of containers: we have a lightweight Linux server dedicated to SAS Studio, complete with all the necessary dependencies.


$ k exec --stdin --tty sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z -- ps -efw
sas 1 0 0 Jul31 ? 00:00:01 /usr/local/bin/tini -- /opt/sas/viya/home/bin/sas-studio-app
sas 7 1 0 Jul31 ? 00:00:00 /bin/bash /opt/sas/viya/home/bin/sas-studio-app
sas 50 7 0 Jul31 ? 00:04:26 /usr/lib/jravm/java-11-openjdk- --add-opens java.base/java.lang=ALL-UNNAMED -D
sas 1877 0 3 09:04 pts/0 00:00:00 ps -efw


We can also infer that SAS Studio is a Java application. Microservices make so-called polyglot applications trivial to develop, and SAS Viya is one example of that (apart from Java, there are microservices written in Go, for example).


Back in our SAS Studio application, we can get the IP that it's listening to easily enough:


$ k get pod sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z -o wide
sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z 1/1 Running 0 14h aks-stateful-39930745-vmss000005 <none> <none>


The IP, is within the Pod CIDR that we saw in the kubenet configuration summary. All pods get an IP from this network segment, and by default, they can be contacted using that IP and the right port. In our example, the ports where SAS Studio listens to are 8080 and 10445:


$ k get pod sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z -o jsonpath='{.spec.containers[*].ports}'


We can test port 8080 by using curl within the pod itself, targeting localhost:


$ k exec --stdin --tty sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z -- curl -k https://localhost:8080/SASStudio/


... and, unsurprisingly, it works (we will not use authorization in this example to keep things simple; getting the reply is enough to test the network flow).


To test if we can reach the server from outside the pod, we will now create a new one: using a container image with network tools (jedrecord/nettools), we spin up a pod and log in interactively, then try to access SAS Studio using the IP and port.


$ k run -it --rm --image=jrecord/nettools nettools --restart=Never
If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
[root@nettools /]# curl -k
{"timestamp":1659349707524,"status":401,"error":"Unauthorized","message":"","path":"/SASStudio/"}[root@nettools /]#


It also works, so it seems that we just need that pod IP address and port and we can start accessing SAS Studio... but that's not really how it works!


The reason is that the pod IP is dynamically assigned by Kubernetes, from a range of addresses reserved for Pods in the node. The most direct implication of this is that the IP information should be considered ephemeral because it actually is: whenever the pod is restarted it will be assigned a different IP.


One typical reason for this would be a restart of the cluster, but since we are not concerned with end-user availability, we can be blunter and delete the SAS Studio pod we've been using until now:


$ k delete pod sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z
pod "sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-2s69z" deleted


 Kubernetes will automatically launch a new one, this being one of the reasons why Kubernetes is a container orchestration platform:


$ k get pod|grep sas-studio-app
sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-gnghj 0/1 Running 0 32s


It looks similar, but with a different name, and a closer look will show that it has a different IP address:


$ k get pod sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-gnghj -o wide
sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-gnghj 1/1 Running 0 2m11s aks-stateless-51044827-vmss000004 <none> <none>


When we retry our connection test, the command that previously worked now... doesn't:


root@nettools /]# curl -k
curl: (7) Failed to connect to port 8080: No route to host


Deleting the previous pod made Kubernetes start a new one, which got a different IP address. The new Pod IP replies as expected when we use the new IP:


[root@nettools /]# curl -k
{"timestamp":1659353103484,"status":401,"error":"Unauthorized","message":"","path":"/SASStudio/"}[root@nettools /]#


We've just started, but so far we were able to determine a couple of important points:


  • SAS Viya has many Pods running, one of which is the one for SAS Studio.
  • The SAS Studio Pod is based on a container image that runs the Java application (Spring-based).
  • The pod gets assigned a random IP from the Pod CIDR range when it starts, every time it starts.
  • We can reach that IP from other pods in the cluster, but we can't depend on the IP because it's ephemeral.


We should note that it's not only the IP that is non-permanent: Pods themselves are considered non-permanent resources, and they can (and are) created and destroyed dynamically by a Deployment resource.


Note: We represented some other resources in the initial diagram: a Secret (that stores certificate tokens for use in the pod), a ConfigMap (that makes certificates available to use in the pod), and a Deployment (the defines all of these in a single logical unit, and through a ReplicaSet makes sure that the correct amount of pods are running at all times); they will not appear in the next diagrams to simplify things and keep the focus on the network flow.

We need a way to keep track of the IPs so that pods can interact safely; fortunately, Kubernetes has a way to address this, and much more: Services.


Internal load-balancing: the Service



A Kubernetes Service is a Kubernetes resource that allows us to define a set of target pods, usually determined by a selector, and that has a stable, cluster-wide IP.


Continuing with our SAS Studio journey, SAS Viya includes a Service for it (and, in general, a Service for all the other components), the details of which include the IP address:


$ k get service sas-studio-app -o wide
sas-studio-app ClusterIP <none> 443/TCP 3d,


This Service has the Cluster IP of - notice that it's within the Service CIDR of the cluster, different from the one used for Pods - and listens in port 443. The selector targets pods that have two labels: one indicating that they are part of SAS Viya, and the other that they are named sas-studio-app. A closer look into the Service definition will make the connection between it and the pods we have seen in the previous section clearer:


$ k describe service sas-studio-app
Name: sas-studio-app
Type: ClusterIP
IP Family Policy: SingleStack
IP Families: IPv4
Port: http 443/TCP
TargetPort: http/TCP
Session Affinity: None
Events: <none>


This Service listens on, and directs traffic to pods that match the selector at port 8080. Looking closely we can find the IP of the SAS Studio pod, from the last section, in the Endpoints entry.


Returning to our nettools pod, we can test this flow:


[root@nettools /]# curl -k


The Service IP of the Service, which can be reached anywhere in the cluster, sends the traffic to the SAS Studio pod as expected; note that we are now using the default HTTPS port since that's the one to which the Service listens to.


One additional feature of Services is the built-in DNS support: while the IP is stable throughout the Service lifecycle, a DNS A entry is created
automatically using the form <service-name>.<namespace>.<cluster-name>:


[root@nettools /]# curl -k


We now have a stable way to make our requests reach the SAS Studio pod. In the case of applications with multiple replicas, the Service will keep track of the health of the endpoints that match the selector and load-balance traffic automatically. Whenever pods get destroyed and rescheduled (for example, a cluster node goes down and pods are automatically restarted in another node), the Service will update its configuration to point to the right place.


In this stretch of our path we have discovered some interesting tidbits:


  • Services redirect and load-balance traffic using a selector.
  • Services keep track of the health of pods, updating the backend IPs dynamically.
  • Services provide us with a stable Cluster IP and a cluster internal DNS hostname for the service.


Armed with this information, we are halfway there in our journey, but there's something important missing: Services provide a Cluster IP (and DNS record) which is internal, so they are not directly accessible by the outside world. For that, we will need something else: an Ingress.


Exposing to the outside world: the Ingress




We went from Pods to Services, and now we reach another layer: the Ingress. In its simpler form, an Ingress manages external access, routing requests coming from the outside to Services inside the cluster.


Just like for Services, SAS Viya deploys a number of Ingresses, including one for SAS Studio:


$ k get ingress sas-studio-app
sas-studio-app nginx,* XX.XXX.XXX.XX 80, 443 3d1h


This information makes it clear we are dealing with exposing our resources: the HOSTS field indicates the externally-accessible hostname that we must define when deploying SAS Viya, and it has an ADDRESS field with a public IP address (in this case, since it could also be an IP in a private range, but it would indicate the IP associated with the external hostname).


Describing this specific Ingress allows us to get a better understanding of what goes on:


$ k describe ingress sas-studio-app
Name: sas-studio-app
Namespace: sas-viya
Address: XX.XXX.XXX.XX
Default backend: default-http-backend:80 (<error: endpoints "default-http-backend" not found>)
sas-ingress-certificate-24mffmch6d terminates,*
Host                      Path                          Backends
----                      ----                          --------   /SASStudio                    sas-studio-app:443 (
* /SASStudio                    sas-studio-app:443 (


The above configuration read like this: whenever there is a request to, as indicated by the Host and Path, traffic should be sent to the sas-studio-app Service, listening on port 443. Note the pod IP address and port between parenthesis: this is additional information that is being displayed, it's not a part of the Ingress definition, and it's there to facilitate our view on the active path that requests will take by adding the information of the active Service endpoints (if empty, it would mean that the Service doesn't have active Endpoints).


The Ingress is, ultimately, a rule that determines how traffic will be dealt with, but a rule needs something to implement it: in Kubernetes, this is the Ingress Controller. In SAS Viya one of the requirements is an NGINX Ingress controller.


The NGINX Ingress controller

2 - NGINX Controller.png


If the idea of defining rules to direct HTTP traffic seems something that an HTTP server or proxy would do, well, that's because it's true. The Ingress controller is a Layer 7 proxy that directs requests to the backend, and specifically, the NGINX Ingress controller uses NGINX as a reverse proxy and load-balancer.


As for NGINX itself, it runs in a pod (or more than one, two are a common setting) in its own namespace:


$ k get pods -n ingress-nginx -o wide
ingress-nginx-controller-84cc585d9c-jgp7g 1/1 Running 0 18h aks-system-16375213-vmss000004 <none> <none>


The reason we are talking about "Ingress" and "Ingress controller" is mostly because, when NGINX is used in this role in Kubernetes, the way we can configure it is different and completely integrated with Kubernetes: instead of manually adding rules to the NGINX configuration files, we specify them as Ingress rules (as we saw in the previous section) and they get automatically added to the configuration, as we can easily see by checking the nginx.conf file in the pod:


$  k exec --stdin --tty pod/ingress-nginx-controller-84cc585d9c-jgp7g -n ingress-nginx -- bash
bash-5.1$ grep SASStudio /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
location ~* "^/SASStudio/" {
set $location_path "/SASStudio";
location ~* "^/SASStudio" {
set $location_path "/SASStudio";
location ~* "^/SASStudio/" {
set $location_path "/SASStudio";
location ~* "^/SASStudio" {
set $location_path "/SASStudio";


Additionally, the NGINX Ingress controller automates other aspects which are needed when working in a Kubernetes context, and there is one aspect that is important to highlight: the way it interacts with cloud environments to provide a public endpoint IP.


Reaching the Ingress: the Cloud Load Balancer

The last step in our journey is the first and only which is outside the Kubernetes cluster itself. We've seen that to expose the internal Services, we use an NGINX Ingress controller that will be configured through Ingress resources to direct traffic to different Services.


NGINX pods can be deployed in different nodes in the cluster (just like any other pod), so any external connectivity needs to address how to provide a stable external IP address that load-balances all the cluster nodes: we need a single, external endpoint that will send the traffic to an NGINX pod in the cluster.


For cloud deployment, and specifically for AKS, NGINX automatically creates an external Load Balancer by using a LoadBalancer


$ k get svc ingress-nginx-controller -n ingress-nginx -o wide
ingress-nginx-controller LoadBalancer XX.XXX.XXX.XX 80:30623/TCP,443:30954/TCP 3d3h,,


This type of Service should not be mistaken for the ClusterIP types we have already covered: a Load Balancer Service will interact with the Cloud infrastructure and automate the creation of an external load balancer and will store the IP that is returned. As we can see, the EXTERNAL-IP of this Service is the same that appears in all Ingress rules, and is indicated in the LoadBalancer Ingress field as well:


$ k describe svc ingress-nginx-controller -n ingress-nginx
Name: ingress-nginx-controller
Namespace: ingress-nginx
Type: LoadBalancer
IP Family Policy: SingleStack
IP Families: IPv4
LoadBalancer Ingress: XX.XXX.XXX.XX
Port: http 80/TCP
TargetPort: http/TCP
NodePort: http 30623/TCP
Port: https 443/TCP
TargetPort: https/TCP
NodePort: https 30954/TCP
Session Affinity: None
External Traffic Policy: Local
HealthCheck NodePort: 31081


Just like any Service, it has a selector, which in this case directs traffic to the NGINX Ingress controller pods (the Endpoints field has the IP of the NGINX pod from the last section). The internal IP,, can also be used to send traffic to NGINX, but obviously will only work inside the cluster.


In terms of Azure, the topology will be something like this:


Azure Load Balancer paths.Azure Load Balancer paths.


The cloud load balancer will check the status of all nodes by connecting to http://<node-external-ip>:31081/healthz (this can be seen in the Health Probes blade in the Azure Portal). The nodes where the ingress pod is running will answer with HTTP 200, and traffic will be sent to that node's external IP on the ports where it's listening - 30623( HTTP) and 30954 (HTTPS).


Note: There is a subtle detail that we are not showing in our diagrams or descriptions: when looking into the Azure Load Balancer configuration in AKS, the target port for the backend is set at 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS)... but the LoadBalancer Service definition creates NodePorts, in each node, listening on 30623 (HTTP) and 30954 (HTTPS). How does this work? This is a very lightly documented specificity of AKS: what happens is that in the Kubernetes nodes, at the host Linux level, there are iptables rules that do a DNAT on those ports when they have the load balancer IP as the target: in short, they transparently redirect traffic coming from the load balancer to the Service ports. This is hard to test and can only be detected by looking into the iptables chains at the host level (check for more details).

This load balancer IP is the final destination of our analysis: this is what we will use in our browser to access SAS Viya, in general, and SAS Studio in particular. We are now ready to make our journey back to the pod, now with a clearer understanding of what it entails.


Tracing our way back: dissecting ingress flow


Having gone through this step-by-step exploration of the different components, we should now be much more familiar with the starting diagram and have little trouble following the flow:


3 - Tracing our way back.png



Starting from the outside - for example, an end-user browser trying to access SAS Studio - this is how the requests get into the SAS Studio pod:


  1. Someone makes a request to . This hostname was determined from the start as the one for SAS Viya.
  2. The hostname is converted into an IP address, almost always through DNS (but could be through /etc/hosts as well).
  3. This IP address, XX.XXX.XXX.XX, is the IP of the frontend of Azure Load Balancer, which has rules to direct traffic on ports 80 and 443 towards all nodes of the Kubernetes cluster. This Load Balancer was created because of the LoadBalancer Service that was added by the NGINX Ingress controller, which interacted with Azure to spin up the cloud load balancer, and stored the IP that was configured as the frontend.
  4. The load balancer determines which nodes in the cluster are able to receive the request, using a health probe, and send the request to the port defined in the LoadBalancer Service on that node's external IP.
  5. The request arrives at the cluster and is sent to an NGINX pod.
  6. The path /SASStudio is processed as per the NGINX rules, which are determined by Ingress resources: in this case, there is an Ingress definition that says that traffic with that path component should be sent to the sas-studio-app Service, on port 443.
  7. The sas-studio-app Service receives the request and sends it to the configured endpoints, which are the pods that fit a specific selector. Here, the sas-studio-app pod, in whatever internal IP it currently has, on port 8080.
  8. The sas-studio-app pod (named something like sas-studio-app-75b59846b4-gnghj) receives the request on its IP, port 8080, where the SAS Studio application is running.


After receiving the request, the SAS Studio application sends the reply: note that this is not up the same circuit, and will, in the most simple cases, be sent through the external IP of the node where the pod is running, which is possibly then directed to an outgoing IP in the same cloud load balancer (this is the situation in the AKS cluster used here).


Final words


We covered a lot of ground and touched upon some of the most relevant aspects of Kubernetes networking, with an eye on how SAS Viya uses them. Even so, we have left out plenty of other aspects that would require similar articles for themselves (which fortunately already exist!):


  • We didn't cover how TLS is used, something which is an important aspect of a secure SAS Viya deployment (but check SAS Viya 2020.1 (and later) Front Door Ingress HTTPS with Customer Provided Certificate for an explanation of the options available, as well as SAS Viya Network Security on Kubernetes: A TLS Primer for more on TLS).
  • We didn't mention service meshes, which significantly affect the way networking works; at the time of writing SAS Viya doesn't explicitly support service meshes.
  • We focused on the inbound flow only; as mentioned, the return path is different.
  • We didn't focus on the YAML representation of how the several Kubernetes objects are defined (check Kubernetes Primer for SAS Viya: Networking for a gentle introduction to it).
  • We didn't address SAS Viya installation, container images or Kubernetes cluster requirements.
  • We stopped at the Azure Load Balancer (when installing in other cloud-managed services, a cloud-specific load balancer would be deployed), but real-world deployments can have additional layers. For example, we could have an Azure Application Gateway with Azure Firewall in front of the Azure Load Balancer (check Azure Architecture Centre for additional blueprints).
  • By using AKS, we didn't cover the possible differences that would exist in other cloud providers.

... and plenty more: if Kubernetes can be described as "the sum of all the bash scripts and best practices that most system administrators would cobble together over time", then there will always be a lot left uncovered, and this is one of the reasons why Kubernetes is seemingly so complex, but also why it's able to scale to address so many different use-cases and requirements, from trivially simple to dauntingly hard.

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‎10-06-2022 05:04 PM
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