## How to solve an orienteering problem?

Hello,

I have been using PROC OPTNET to solve a traveling salesman problem. Now I want to solve an orienteering problem, which is a selective traveling salesman problem. Each node has a prize and the objective is maximize the total prize of the visited nodes within a time constraint. I cannot find any SAS documentation on this specific type of traveling salesman problem on how to solve it. Could someone please direct me?

1 ACCEPTED SOLUTION

Accepted Solutions

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

Here's one way, iterating between the MILP solver and the network (TSP) solver in a loop with PROC OPTMODEL.  The master MILP problem prescribes which nodes to visit, and the TSP subproblem determines whether those nodes can be visited within the allotted time (or distance).

``````proc optmodel printlevel=0;
/* declare parameters and read data */
set NODES;
num x {NODES};
num y {NODES};
num score {NODES};
str name {NODES};
read data indata into NODES=[_N_] x y score name;
set ARCS = {i in NODES, j in NODES diff {i}};
num source;
for {i in NODES: score[i] = 0} do;
source = i;
leave;
end;
num distance {<i,j> in ARCS} =
(if j = source then 0 else sqrt((x[i]-x[j])^2+(y[i]-y[j])^2));

/* declare optimization model */
var UseNode {NODES} binary;
max TotalScore = sum {i in NODES} score[i] * UseNode[i];
num numsols init 0;
set SOLS = 1..numsols;
set NODES_s {SOLS};
con ExcludeSol {s in SOLS}:
sum {i in NODES_s[s]} UseNode[i] <= card(NODES_s[s]) - 1;
fix UseNode[source] = 1;

/* declare parameters used by network solver */
set TSP_NODES = {i in NODES: UseNode[i].sol > 0.5};
set <num,num> TOUR;

/* row generation loop */
do while (1);
/* call MILP solver */
put 'Solving MILP master...';
solve;
put TSP_NODES=;
/* call network (ATSP) solver */
put 'Solving ATSP subproblem...';
solve with network / TSP graph_direction=directed
put TOUR=;
/* check feasibility and either exit loop or include new row */
if _NETWORK_OBJECTIVE_.sol <= &distance_budget then leave;
else do;
numsols = numsols + 1;
NODES_s[numsols] = TSP_NODES;
end;
end;
quit;
``````

This version uses Euclidean distance, except that the distance back to the source node is 0.

7 REPLIES 7

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

Here's one way, iterating between the MILP solver and the network (TSP) solver in a loop with PROC OPTMODEL.  The master MILP problem prescribes which nodes to visit, and the TSP subproblem determines whether those nodes can be visited within the allotted time (or distance).

``````proc optmodel printlevel=0;
/* declare parameters and read data */
set NODES;
num x {NODES};
num y {NODES};
num score {NODES};
str name {NODES};
read data indata into NODES=[_N_] x y score name;
set ARCS = {i in NODES, j in NODES diff {i}};
num source;
for {i in NODES: score[i] = 0} do;
source = i;
leave;
end;
num distance {<i,j> in ARCS} =
(if j = source then 0 else sqrt((x[i]-x[j])^2+(y[i]-y[j])^2));

/* declare optimization model */
var UseNode {NODES} binary;
max TotalScore = sum {i in NODES} score[i] * UseNode[i];
num numsols init 0;
set SOLS = 1..numsols;
set NODES_s {SOLS};
con ExcludeSol {s in SOLS}:
sum {i in NODES_s[s]} UseNode[i] <= card(NODES_s[s]) - 1;
fix UseNode[source] = 1;

/* declare parameters used by network solver */
set TSP_NODES = {i in NODES: UseNode[i].sol > 0.5};
set <num,num> TOUR;

/* row generation loop */
do while (1);
/* call MILP solver */
put 'Solving MILP master...';
solve;
put TSP_NODES=;
/* call network (ATSP) solver */
put 'Solving ATSP subproblem...';
solve with network / TSP graph_direction=directed
put TOUR=;
/* check feasibility and either exit loop or include new row */
if _NETWORK_OBJECTIVE_.sol <= &distance_budget then leave;
else do;
numsols = numsols + 1;
NODES_s[numsols] = TSP_NODES;
end;
end;
quit;
``````

This version uses Euclidean distance, except that the distance back to the source node is 0.

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

Thank you, I'll try it. Do you know of any formal SAS documentation (a book, an article) on the orienteering problem?

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

The closest parts of the formal documentation are probably these vehicle routing examples in which each vehicle visits a subset of nodes:

http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/ormpug/68156/HTML/default/viewer.htm#ormpug_decomp_examp...

http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/ormpex/68157/HTML/default/viewer.htm#ormpex_ex23_toc.htm

http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/ormpex/68157/HTML/default/viewer.htm#ormpex_ex27_toc.htm

In each case, you can specialize to a single vehicle and modify the objective as needed.

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

Thank you again. I really appreciate your speedy responses.

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

Hi Rob,

Could you please explain the constraint in the given code? What exactly does it do?

`````` con ExcludeSol {s in SOLS}:
sum {i in NODES_s[s]} UseNode[i] <= card(NODES_s[s]) - 1;``````

I also do not know what card(NODES_s[s] is. I don't see it defined anywhere.

Thanks

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

CARD returns the cardinality of a set:

http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/ormpug/68156/HTML/default/viewer.htm#ormpug_optmodel_det...

The left-hand side of the constraint is a sum of binary variables, and the right-hand side is a constant that is one less than the number of binary variables.  So the constraint "cuts off" a given solution by preventing all of the specified binary variables from being set to 1.

## Re: How to solve an orienteering problem?

It turns out that this approach (enforcing connectivity and relaxing the distance constraint) does not scale well.  Each MILP or TSP solver call is fast, but for large instances too many solver calls are required.  The other approach used in the linked doc examples (enforcing the distance constraint and relaxing connectivity) scales much better, requiring relatively few solver calls even for large instances.

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