## Geometric mean

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Occasional Contributor
Posts: 13

# Geometric mean

Hi Please tell me how to calculate geometric mean in sas.Is it possible with proc mean.

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Solution
‎08-25-2017 12:15 PM
Posts: 5,541

## Re: Geometric mean

[ Edited ]
Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

From @Ksharp:

SAS has already offered such a function.

x1=geomean(1,2,2,4);

More info... Assuming you want the geometric mean because your data has a lognormal distribution, you could do :

``````data test;
set myData;
LogV1 = log(V1);
run;

proc means data=test alpha=0.1;
var LogV1;
output out=myStats
mean=meanLogV1
lclm=lclmLogV1
uclm=uclmLogV1;
run;

proc sql;
select exp(meanLogV1) as geometricMean,
exp(lclmLogV1) as lclmGeoMean,
exp(uclmLogV1) as uclmGeoMean
from myStats;
quit;``````

- blog post from @Rick_SAS about the arithmetic-geometric mean, which includes methods for calculation.

- comment from the OP: "I found that we can directly calculate geometric mean and its confidence interval by proc ttest specifying distribution=lognormal (TTEST doc here)."

PG

PG

All Replies
Super User
Posts: 10,787

## Re: Geometric mean

Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

SAS has already offered such  a function.

x1=geomean(1,2,2,4);

Ksharp

Occasional Contributor
Posts: 13

## Re: Geometric mean

suppose I am having variable(say V1) and I want to calculate its geometric mean and 90% confidence interval.then how to write code for this.

Posts: 4,741

## Re: Geometric mean

Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

Not sure if this link can help:

http://support.sas.com/kb/25/366.html

Solution
‎08-25-2017 12:15 PM
Posts: 5,541

## Re: Geometric mean

[ Edited ]
Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

From @Ksharp:

SAS has already offered such a function.

x1=geomean(1,2,2,4);

More info... Assuming you want the geometric mean because your data has a lognormal distribution, you could do :

``````data test;
set myData;
LogV1 = log(V1);
run;

proc means data=test alpha=0.1;
var LogV1;
output out=myStats
mean=meanLogV1
lclm=lclmLogV1
uclm=uclmLogV1;
run;

proc sql;
select exp(meanLogV1) as geometricMean,
exp(lclmLogV1) as lclmGeoMean,
exp(uclmLogV1) as uclmGeoMean
from myStats;
quit;``````

- blog post from @Rick_SAS about the arithmetic-geometric mean, which includes methods for calculation.

- comment from the OP: "I found that we can directly calculate geometric mean and its confidence interval by proc ttest specifying distribution=lognormal (TTEST doc here)."

PG

PG
Valued Guide
Posts: 2,191

## Re: Geometric mean

Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

interesting terminology,
"geometric mean and 90% confidence interval"

Is the confidence interval calculated differently when the appropriate mean is geometric?

(a question from a non-statistician)

Posts: 5,541

## Re: Geometric mean

[ Edited ]

Peter, the usual reason for choosing the geometric mean as a measure of location is to discount the influence of large observations. The geoMean is always less than the mean and that is sometimes an untold motivation for choosing it. Whether it is appropriate or not, the estimate is a random quantity and it can be characterized by a confidence interval.  The little example below shows two methods for obtaining confidence intervals for both the arithmetic and geometric means. Here, the parametric method wrongly assumes that the data comes from a lognormal distribution.

``````
/* Generate random sample from uniform distribution */
%let sampleSize=30;
data test;
call streaminit(8567845);
do i = 1 to &sampleSize.;
x = rand("UNIFORM");
output;
end;
run;

/* Get parametric estimates of the mean, geometric mean and confidence intervals */
data logTest;
set test;
logX = log(x);
run;

proc means data=logTest noprint;;
var x logX;
output out=parmTest mean=MeanX GeoMeanX
lclm=lclmMeanX lclmGeoMeanX
uclm=uclmMeanX uclmGeoMeanX;
run;

/* Get bootstrap estimates of the mean, geometric mean and confidence intervals */
proc surveyselect data=test method=urs sampsize=&sampleSize.
seed=8634235 reps=10000 out=repTest noprint;
run;

proc sql;
create table statTest as
select replicate, mean(x) as meanX, exp(mean(log(x))) as geoMeanX
from repTest
group by replicate;
proc univariate data=statTest noprint;
var meanX geoMeanX;
output out=bootTest mean=MeanX GeoMeanX
p5=lclmMeanX lclmGeoMeanX
p95=uclmMeanX uclmGeoMeanX;
run;

/* Assemble result table */
proc sql;
select "Parametric" as estimationMethod, "Arithmetic Mean" as statistic,
meanX label="Estimate",
lclmMeanX label="90% Lower conficence interval",
uclmMeanX label="90% Upper conficence interval"
from parmTest
union all
select "Parametric", "Geometric Mean",
exp(geoMeanX), exp(lclmGeoMeanX), exp(uclmGeoMeanX) from parmTest
union all
select "Bootstrap", "Arithmetic Mean" as statistic,
meanX, lclmMeanX, uclmMeanX from bootTest
union all
select "Bootstrap", "Geometric Mean",
geoMeanX, lclmGeoMeanX, uclmGeoMeanX from bootTest;
quit;``````

```                                                             90% lower   90% upper
estimation                               confidence  confidence
Method        statistic        Estimate    interval    interval
---------------------------------------------------------------
Parametric    Arithmetic Mean  0.507751    0.394374    0.621128
Parametric    geometric mean   0.35044     0.229529    0.535045
Bootstrap     Arithmetic Mean  0.507732    0.439312    0.576648
Bootstrap     geometric mean   0.354656    0.274441    0.456925```

PG

PG
Valued Guide
Posts: 2,191

## Re: Geometric mean

PG

thank you for the mostr effective demonstration and hope you might tolerate an old man's tardy reply.

You have not only confirmed my expectations but demonstrated how much a geo-mean might differ from the arithmetic.

I like the simplicity of the suggestion "discount the influence of large observations". Previously for me, it (geo mean) appeared to be of practical use solely among the tools of the actuary (and perhaps technical investment analysts), providing  the only theoretical way to derive "average" rate of return

(n-th root of) product[( over n periods) of (1+rate_i)] -1

(where i goes from 1 to n)

Such calculations averaging rates, suffer problems if ever a pereiodic rate_i exceeds -100% as in for example, bankruptcy.

Have I misinterpreted the situation?

Do you see a practical work-around?

PeterC

Posts: 5,541

## Re: Geometric mean

[ Edited ]

Hi Peter,

Well, I don't know much about economics but some errors are common to many fields. The error I see lurking in your argument is one I've made more than once, I'm afraid. When dealing with rates of change, we tend to estimate the change by multiplying the rate by time. But that is an approximation. Things that change at a constant relative rate r obey the equation :

Y(t) = Y(0)*Exp(r*t)               Eq 1

which we approximate by

Y(t) = Y(0) * (1 + r*t)             Eq 2

that's fine as long as Abs(r*t) is much smaller than one. And that is usually how r is estimated : by looking at change over a short period. Inflation for example can be estimated by looking at the change in prices over a month, and the rate estimated by Equation 2 will be very close to the real value, as long as it is small, 2 or 3 % per year, say. The approximation breaks down when you face something that lost 90% of its value over a month. The rate estimated with Equation 2 will be -10.8 per year when the true value is -27.6. Worse, either of those values, when plugged back in Equation 2 would mean that after two months the value would become negative.

Now, let's say you have many ratios Ri = Yi(T)/Yi(0) that you want to summarize with a single value. It makes a lot of sense to use the geometric mean of the Ri to do that because GeoMean(R) = Exp(Mean(r)*T), which is the ratio you would get from the average rate of change. That is the logic, I believe, behind the use of the geometric mean in that context.

To summarize: the geometric mean should be calculated on ratios that can be approximated with Equation 2 only when the rate of change is small and the time period is short. Otherwise the geometric mean should be calculated on the actual observed ratios or ratios estimated with Equation 1.

PG

PG
New Contributor
Posts: 4

## Re: Geometric mean

Easy and quick to solve with the geomean function.

Further explanations are also didactic and great.

Super User
Posts: 10,787

## Re: Geometric mean

Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

OK. Try it.

```data test ;
input v1 @@;
cards;
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
;
run;
%let dsid=%sysfunc(open(test,i));
%let nobs=%sysfunc(attrn(&dsid,nobs));
%let dsid=%sysfunc(close(&dsid));
data _null_;
set test end=last;
array _g{&nobs} _temporary_;
_g{_n_}=v1;
if last then do;
geomean=geomean(of _g{*});
put geomean=;
end;
run;

```

Ksharp

Occasional Contributor
Posts: 13

## Re: Geometric mean

Posted in reply to kumarnaidu

Hi one thing I found that we can directly calculate geometric mean and its confidence interval by proc ttest specifying distribution=lognormal.

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